How to take care on turbocharger?
All modern diesel engines have a turbocharger. It’s basically a turbine and compressor mounted on one shaft. Some of the exhaust gas coming out of the engine is directed through the turbine, causing it to spin at high speeds. As the shaft and compressor are directly connected to the turbine, the compressor also spins. Air coming into the engine from the air filter is directed through the compressor, compacting it to get more air into the engine.
Getting more air into an engine means more fuel can be carried in with it, resulting in improved performance – and because the air is compressed, more oxygen is getting into the engine for the same volume of air, which increases efficiency. It’s an ideal scenario: you’re given more power, but without the trade-off in fuel consumption or emissions.
Modern turbos are controlled via the engine management computer. It adjusts the angle of the turbine nozzles to control its speed, and hence the amount of air compression. Older turbos use a valve, or wastegate, that opens and closes to control the amount of exhaust into the turbine, and thus the pressure of the compressed air being fed to the engine
Turbochargers rotate at over 150,000rpm on precision bearings that need a constant flow of oil, not only to lubricate them, but also to carry away the intense exhaust heat that’s transmitted along the shaft.
If the oil flow slows down, the heat can cause it to burn, producing carbon particles that score the bearings. This caused a problem on older engines when they were switched off: the heat from the turbo soaked into the oil, burning it and destroying the bearings at the next start-up.
Metal pipes and flexible hoses transfer engine air from the air filter to the turbo. The air then goes through the intercooler before going into the engine. Any leaks in the pipework between the air filter and the turbo will allow dust to be drawn in, which erodes the turbo’s compressor blades. Leaks in the pipework between the turbo and the intercooler, and from there to the engine, will allow air to escape and will lead to a loss of power.